Archaeological Testing, San Xavier Farm Rehabilitation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

From December 2004 through August 2006, under our five-year on-call contract with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, ACS conducted intensive testing and construction monitoring along 28 miles of water pipeline, dike, channelization, and temporary pond construction areas on the San Xavier District, Tohono O’odham Nation, Pima Count. The project was undertaken for the benefit of the San Xavier District and their Farm Cooperative, who are in the process of rehabilitating community farm fields along the Santa Cruz River. ACS discovered remains from the Prehistoric (Hohokam), Protohistoric, and Historic periods, including evidence of early European contact with the local Native American community prior to ca. 1750. Parts of four sites were investigated, and a series of protohistoric/historic canals and laterals, and a pond/reservoir, were encountered. Interesting finds include glass trade beads, a carved shale gorget shaped as a serrated-edge knife, a Matsaki Polychrome bowl from Zuni, and cf. bison faunal remains. Use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) allowed integration of survey, monitoring, testing, and data recovery data of both mapping grade GPS and total station data with client provided CAD data to allow for more streamlined analysis and report preparation. Data was analyzed for stratigraphy, land-use patterns, and feature distributions. Climate data were incorporated into the GIS to facilitate environmental landscape reconstruction.